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4-15. The Walking Step
a. Use. This is the simplest movement in skiing and is used as the basic step in forward motion. In military skiing, its application is for situations where walking or climbing is necessary. On level ground, sliding action of variable degrees can be obtained.
b. Technique.
(1) From the position of attention on skis (para C-17) left unweighted ski is slid flat over the surface of the snow and straight forward as in normal walking.
(2) At the same time, both knees are bent and the body weight is gradually shifted onto the advanced foot. The heel of the rear foot is raised.
(3) The right ski pole is moved forward and the basket is placed close to the right ski, towards the tip, with its shaft leaning to the front.
(4) A push to the rear with the pole is made, assisting in the forward body motion.
(5) The above motion is repeated with the right ski.
(6) On level ground the skis are kept flat and parallel.
(7) The skis are not lifted off the snow, and the weight of the skis is carried by the snow.

4-16. One Step
a. General. The basic movement of the one step is the walking step. Forward motion and glide are increased when the skier applies more effort to his step. This added effort is obtained by a lunge coordinated with an increased push from the poles.
b. Use. The one step is the most widely used of all skiing steps. It is applied under all types of snow conditions on level ground (fig. 4- 13).
c. Technique.
(1) The one step is started by a forward lean of the body, with well bent knees and ankles. The feet are kept flat and the body weight is on the right ski,
from which the initial movement (lunge) is made.
(2) The left, unweighted ski is slid flat and straight forward by a springing motion from right ankle, knee, and hip, straightening the body and transferring the weight to the left sliding ski.
(3) The springing motion (lunge) above, is completed by straightening the right knee and pushing off from the right foot, thus completing the weight transfer.
(4) The body weight is kept on the sliding (left) ski and, as the glide nears completion, the left knee and ankle are bent in preparation for the next lunge. Meanwhile, the right leg is relaxed and moves the ski forward in preparation for the next step. As this leg reaches a position approximately alongside the left leg, the next step is made with the right ski by lunging from the left leg.
(5) When using the poles, the lunge is executed as above except that as the left foot is slid forward the right ski pole is swung straight to the front and placed towards the tip of the right ski or, when the right ski is slid forward, the left ski pole is brought forward.
(6) The slide is increased by a push with the ski pole. The ski pole is leaned slightly to the front and the arms kept close to the body.
(7) The pushing action of the ski pole is increased progressively by the muscles of arms and shoulders. The pushing of the arm for added power. When the push has been completed the arm is relaxed and brought forward close to the body in preparation for the next poling action.
(8) During the coordinated movement of poles and lunge, correct timing and a long glide are emphasized. The main power glide is obtained from the lunge executed by each leg, the poling action provides only a secondary source of momentum. All motions are rhythmic and fluent. Poles are used in a relaxed manner and the pressure of pushing is allowed to come on the wrist strap.
Figure 4-13

4-17. Two Step and Three Step
a. Use. This step is used to attain a longer and faster glide on the level. It is also used as an aid through dips and over bumps.
b. Technique. The technique of the two step is a combination of an accelerated walking step and a one step. In the two step the push is obtained by the use of double poling (fig. 4-14).
(1) From a standing position with the knees slightly bent, a walking step is made with the left ski to start the body in motion initially.
(2) A lunge is then made from the left leg, in a continuous rhythmic motion, to produce a long glide on the right ski.
(3) While gliding on the right ski, the left ski is brought slowly forward and even with the other ski to complete the first two step and in preparation of the next two step. This action should be started before the momentum of the glide has been lost.
(4) As the first step is made, both ski poles are brought straight to the front in a comfortable reach and set into the snow alongside the skis in coordination
with the lunge of the second step.
(5) The pushing action with the poles is applied in the same manner as described above in using one pole. As the poles leave the snow, they are brought forward in a straight line in preparation for the execution of the next step. It is most important to time this motion properly to coordinate with the next lunge.
c. Three Step. In addition to the two step, the three step may be used anytime when changing ski steps and when sliding is poor. The initial steps are intended to produce more initial power. It has an advantage over the two step since it allows double poling and lunging from alternate feet. The step is made in the same manner as the two step except that two walking steps are taken before each lunge.
Figure 4-14

4-18. Variations and Applications of Ski Steps
a. In long, cross-country movement, particularly when skiing with pack and rifle, it is most important to apply techniques properly according to the terrain to insure that energy is spent wisely and conserved as much as possible. To this end, the individual must attempt to obtain as much glide as possible from his skis during each step. Although lasting only for a short moment, the glide will allow the skier to rest temporarily. In addition, all movements must be made in a relaxed manner, which necessitates continuous individual training. The constant use of the same step is monotonous and increases fatigue. To avoid this, various steps are used temporarily. The same effect is also necessary in poling. In order to relax arm and shoulder muscles, a series of steps may be made without poling. In the one step, for instance, the first two steps can be made without using the poles. Any additional combination of steps and poling may be made at one’s discretion for the same reason, placing more emphasis on leg rather than arm work, or vice versa.
b. In bumpy terrain, ski steps and poling may be used individually or in various combinations to provide a strong pushoff to provide the skier with sufficient glide for a continuous motion through a dip and over a bump. When a series of bumps and dips is encountered, the poling action is generally applied on the crest of the first bump in order to obtain sufficient momentum to reach the top of the next bump in a continuous glide. A step supported by
double poling may be applied when skiing through the dip. There are other situations where double poling may be applied to gain or increase forward motion of the ski without taking a step.

4-19. Falling
a. General. In military skiing there are two types of falls, controlled and unintentional.
(1) Controlled falls. The controlled fall has definite value. It can be used to avoid excessive speed or to avoid hitting obstacles if other means are not
possible. The controlled fall can be done safely only at slow to moderate speeds. It is used to take cover quickly, assume a firing position or for a quick stop to avoid hitting an object. When properly used, it can be accomplished without injury to the individual.
(2) Unintentional falls. Unintentional falls are undesirable and may cause serious injury. Other undesirable results of an unintentional fall are increased
fatigue, possible frostbite, and holes in the snow which may cause other skiers to fall. Factors which may contribute to unintentional falls are poor skiing ability, lack of control, snow conditions, fatigue, and excessive speeds.
b. Technique of Falling.
(1) If a fall is imminent, an attempt is made to relax, lower the body, and to land sideways and to the rear.
(2) While falling, an attempt should be made to stretch the body, to extend the arms and to keep the ski poles to the rear (fig. 4-15). Care should be taken to keep the knees from digging into the snow, as such action is a major cause of injury.
(3) The impact of the fall should be absorbed by the hips or buttocks.
(4) The unintentional fall is avoided as much as possible. It is often prevented by the correction of a faulty ski or body position.
(5) Landing directly on a knee or hand must be avoided since the resulting blow may cause serious injury. This is especially serious in heavy wet snow or breakable crust because the extended arm or knee may penetrate and be locked firmly in place before the body has lost momentum.
(6) Although falling or “sitting down” with the skis facing downhill is the preferred method, occasionally a fall “over the tips” cannot be avoided. The
important thing to remember is RELAX.
c. Recovery.
(1) To recover from a fall, the skier must first figure out what to do before attempting to rise. A little planning will save time and energy.
(2) If necessary, the pack and other restrictive loads are removed.
(3) Skis are untangled and brought parallel, feet together. Knees are pulled up to bring the skis close to the body. The body is then moved forward and
raised, pushing with the pole if assistance is needed.
(4) To use the ski poles, both hands are first removed from the straps. The poles are then placed together with baskets in the snow slightly to the rear, grasped with one hand above the basket, palm facing downward, and with the other hand close to the top, palm facing upward.
(5) The procedure for recovery from a fall on a slope is the same except that the skis are placed below the body and perpendicular (at right angles) to the fall line. To obtain this position it may be necessary to roll onto the back, lifting the skis in the air and then in the proper position. Poles are then used as described on the uphill side (fig. 4-15).
Figure 4-15 Figure 4-15 (con't)

4-20. Straight Uphill Climbing
a. Use. Straight uphill climbing is a method of ascending gentle and moderate slopes.
b. Technique.
(1) Take the first step as in walking the body leaning forward with knees well bent.
(2) On gentle slopes, slide the skis forward without lifting them from the snow. On steeper slopes, more knee bend is required which causes a transfer of body weight. It may become necessary to lift the ski as the step is made, and to place it with a stamping action upon the snow. This will give the ski wax better holding qualities because it will not break down the snow crystals by first sliding over them.
(3) Use the ski poles to assist the body in its uphill movement and to minimize backslip.
(4) The degree of slope which may be ascended using this method is limited by the holding characteristics of the wax used. With repeated backslapping of the skis, the slope should be traversed thereby decreasing the angle of climb, or a different method of climbing should be used.

4-21. Sidestep
a. Use. The sidestep is an effective method of climbing a short, steep slope, where space is confined; it may be the only practical means of ascending slopes. It is also useful for stepping sideways over logs, stumps, and other obstacles.
b. Technique.
(1) The skis are placed together and perpendicular (at right angles) to the slope (fall line). To prevent slipping sideways, the uphill edges of both skis are forced into the snow by pushing both knees forward and toward the slope. Avoid leaning into the slope. Initially, the weight of the body is placed on the lower ski.
(2) The uphill is lifted in a sideways step up the slope (fig. 4-16) and the body weight placed upon it. The upper ski pole is moved at the same time and
placed above and alongside this ski. The lower ski is then moved up as close as possible to the uphill ski, while the skier is supported by a push on the lower pole. This pole is then brought up and placed alongside the lower ski. This completes one cycle of the sidestep. Merely repeat until the desired elevation is reached.
Figure 4-16

4-22. Uphill Traverse
a. Use. This method of climbing is used when the slope becomes too steep for going straight uphill. Although a traverse generally involves a zigzag route, it will often be the least tiring method of ascending, thereby conserving time and energy.
b. Technique.
(1) An angle of ascent is selected which will allow climbing without backslip.
(2) The skis are edged into the slope on each step with the ski poles used as in straight uphill climbing.
(3) In changing the direction of ascent a kick turn or a herringbone turn, (para 4-24d) can be utilized. Long traverses should be used whenever possible, since elevation is gained more effectively and with less expenditure of energy in this manner.

4-23. Sidestep Traverse
a. Use. This step is a combination of a sidestep and the uphill traverse. It allows greater vertical climb in each traverse.
b. Technique.
(1) The movement is the same as in the uphill traverse, except the ski is raised slightly and placed uphill as it is brought forward with each step.
(2) The skis are kept parallel and edged, as in the sidestep.
(3) The ski poles are moved in the same sequence as in the sidestep.

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