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Section VII. SLEDS
5-16. Man Hauled Sleds

a. Sled, Scow-Type 200-Pound Capacity. (Ahkio). Man-hauled sleds are necessarily light. They can carry a load of 200 pounds over difficult terrain and are used for carrying tents, stoves, fuel, rations, and other necessary items of each tent group. They are also used for carrying weapons and ammunition. They may be used as a firing platform for machine-guns in deep snow and are particularly useful in the evacuation of casualties. Sleds are seldom used by small reconnaissance patrols because of the decreased speed of the individuals. Strong combat patrols, however, frequently use them for carrying their equipment or for evacuation in cases when faster means are not available. Sleds are provided with white canvas covers for camouflage, to hold the contents in place and protect them from the elements (figs. 4-36, 4-37, 5-13).
(1) The sled has an approximate weight of 38 pounds, is 223.5 cm (88") long, 61.0 cm (24") wide, and has a depth of 20.3 cm (8"). It is towed by a team of four men. For the purpose of towing, a harness, sled, single trace, is provided. It consists of a loose-fitting web belt which is fastened at the side by a quick release buckle, an adjustable shoulder strap which supports the belt at the desired position on the hips, and a 2.75 meter (9') towing rope with snap
buckles at each end. Metal D-rings are positioned at the front and rear of the belt.
(2) Normally, sleds are towed by manpower only for short distances over prepared trails during an approach march or a similar type movement. Usually, the sled and equipment is transported on cargo sleds or by tracked vehicles. A number of loaded sleds, can be placed in cargo sleds (1 ton or heavier) or, in an emergency, can be hooked on improvised tow bars and towed behind the tracked vehicles. A triangle made of green poles and attached to the rear
of the vehicle or cargo sled provides an excellent “tow-bar.” Four small sleds can be towed by each vehicle when sleds are tied in tandem to allow two sleds to follow each vehicle track.
(3) The sled, because of its boatlike shape, is easily maneuverable under a variety of snow and terrain conditions. It is superior to flat surfaced toboggans in maneuvering over difficult terrain, especially in deep snow and in heavily wooded areas.
(4) It is important to distribute the load of the sled properly (fig. 5-13). In loading, place heavy equipment on the bottom and slightly to the rear and lighter equipment toward the top, in order to prevent the loaded sled from being top heavy. After the sled has been loaded, the canvas covers of the sled should be folded over the load. To keep snow from getting under the canvas and to keep the load from shifting, lash the load tightly by crisscrossing the lashing rope from the lashing ring on one side of the sled to the other. Place tools such as shovels, axes, and saws on top of the load outside the canvas so that they are readily available for trailbreaking and similar purposes during the movement.
b. Improvised Sleds. Different types of sleds can be improvised from skis, plywood, lumber, or metal sheeting.
Figure 5-13

5-17. Cargo Sleds
a. For military purposes sleds are classified light or heavy. Lightsleds are under 5-ton payload capacity, and sleds with payload capacity of 5 tons or over are considered heavy.
b. Light sleds presently in use are designed to carry 1- or 2-ton payloads. The 1-ton cargo sled (fig. 5-14) is normally used with a light tracked vehicle as a prime mover; and 2-ton sleds (available in limited quantities but not a standard item) with the squad carrier or tractor as a prime mover. Care must be exercised, when towing these sleds with tracked vehicles, to avoid snapping the sled tongues in quick starting, Light sleds are suitable for use when rapid travel is involved and in areas where the freezing season has mean temperatures which do not form more than moderate thicknesses of ice on rivers and lakes.
c. Heavy sleds (of a commercial type) which may be used are of 10- to 20-ton payload capacity. It is anticipated that the bulk of supply will be transported on heavy sleds as opposed to light sleds. The operating radius of sleds is restricted only by the terrain and capability of the prime mover. The heavy sled is best suited for use over flat or gently rolling terrain and in areas where rivers and lakes are frozen to sufficient depths to permit use as “highway.” In some cases specially constructed “iced roads” are required to operate motorized sled trains with heavy sleds.
Figure 5-14

Section VIII. AIRCRAFT
5-18. Aircraft

The lack of ground communication routes in the northern latitudes causes an extensive use of air transportation. Both fixed-wing and rotary-wing type aircraft are used. Troops and supplies may be transported from one existing or improvised airfield to another. In some situations both supply and evacuation by air may be the only feasible method. Bad weather may limit air operations for short periods of time.
a. Fixed-Wing. The vast stretches of the northern regions can be reconnoitered with a minimum time and effort by liaison fixed-wing aircraft. The ability of the ski-equipped aircraft to land on frozen lakes, streams, and in open fields in winter affords advantages and opportunities to supplement the ground reconnaissance. In addition to reconnaissance, fixed-wing aircraft are used to supplement the overland movement of troops and supplies, evacuation, and many other purposes.
b. Rotary-Wing. The dominant characteristics of this type craft, such as vertical ascent and descent and requirement for short landing areas, make it valuable for reconnaissance, evacuation, troop movements, command control, resupply, and many other types of missions. Aviators must exercise caution when hovering over loose snow as it may swirl up and cause loss of visual reference.

5-19. Airfields
There are many potential landing sites in the area of northern operations. Runways can be constructed by grading and compacting snow. In general, airplanes equipped with skis require about 15 percent more landing and takeoff space than those equipped with wheels. Aircraft can use airfields constructed on frozen lakes and rivers, after a suitable ice reconnaissance has been made (FM 31-71 ). Design criteria for Pioneer, Hasty, and Deliberate
Army airfields and heliports are listed in TM 6330. As a rule of thumb for planning purposes, the airfield for liaison type aircraft (0-1 and U-6) should be a minimum of 30 meters (30 yards) wide and 400 meters (400 yards) long. Refer to the Flight Handbook for exact landing and takeoff distances of various
aircraft.

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