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2-9. Nose and Cheek Protectors and Masks
a. The Mask, Cold Weather may be issued for use during severe windchill conditions. The mask must be removed at intervals to check for frostbite.
b. A certain amount of protection can be gained by covering as much of the face as possible with a wool scarf. It may be adjusted from time to time, and should be rotated when the section opposite the mouth and nose becomes covered with frost. The frozen end should be left outside the coat or parka. The
scarf, like the mask, must be removed at intervals to check for frostbite.

2-10. Camouflage Clothing
a. Winter camouflage clothing (overwhites) consists of white trousers and lightweight parka with hood. White covers are also issued for the rucksacks.
b. Camouflage clothing provides a means of concealment and camouflage from the enemy—both from the ground and from the air in winter conditions. Use of the white camouflage clothing is, however, dependent on the background; generally speaking, on vegetation and the amount of snow on the ground. The complete white suit (fig. 6-26) is worn when terrain is covered with snow. Mixed clothing (fig. 6-27 )—white parka and dark trousers, or vice versa—is used against mottled backgrounds. The correct use of camouflage clothing is extremely important (para 6-22).
c. Overwhites may become frosty and icy after use. As with all clothing, the frost and ice must be removed to expedite drying. Soiled camouflage clothing will lose its effectiveness; therefore, care must be exercised when handling stoves, digging in ground, and performing similar tasks. Avoid scorching or burning the garments when drying or when lying down by an open fire. The clothing should be washed or changed frequently. When changing, clothing
should be checked to insure that it fits over the basic garments without restricting movement.

2-11. Maintenance of Clothing and Equipment
a. Footgear.
(1) Boots. The leather in boots should be treated with approved agents. Normally, the insulated boot can be repaired with ordinary tire patching or air mattress patching material. If these items are not readily available, friction tape or even chewing gum may be used temporarily to plug up the hole and prevent moisture from damaging the insulation. If the damage cannot be repaired, the boots should be removed, airdried, and turned in for replacement as soon as possible. The inside of the boots should be washed at least once a month with a mild soap, and rinsed with warm water.
Caution: Do not clean with abrasive materials. Also do not apply polish or paint to any part of the boot as it will result in deterioration of the rubber.
(2) Socks. Socks should be washed daily, using lukewarm water to avoid excessive shrinkage. After washing, they should be wrung out and stretched to natural shape before drying. Holes in socks should be repaired as soon as possible, taking special precautions to avoid bunching or roughness of the ended area. It should be noted that proper repairs under field conditions are almost impossible and that blisters should be expected if field mended socks are worn.
b. Handgear. Holes should be mended promptly. Gloves or mittens should not be dried too near an open fire.
c. Headgear. Headgear should be washed as required to remove perspiration, dirt, and hair oils. When drying, normal care must be exercised to avoid scorching or burning.

SECTION III. EQUIPMENT
2-12. Sleeping Equipment
a. The complete sleeping bag for use in cold climates consists of three parts: a case, of water-repellent material; an inner bag (mountain type), of quilted tubular construction, filled with a mixture of down and feathers; and an outer bag (arctic bag), of the same material as the inner bag. In addition, an insulating air mattress and a waterproof bag into which the sleeping bags are packed are issued.
b. When temperatures are normally above 14° F., only one bag is used. It is placed in and laced to the cover. When temperatures are below 14° F., both bags are used. The inner bag is placed inside the outer bag and secured at the foot with the loops and tie straps provided and the cover laced over the outer bag.
c. When the bag is used, it is first fluffed up so that the down and feather insulation is evenly distributed in channels, thus preventing matting. Since cold penetrates from below, and the insulation inherent in the bag is compressed by the weight of the body, additional insulation is placed under the bag whenever possible. Added insulation can be obtained by placing ponchos, extra clothing, backboards, fiber ammunition or food containers, or boughs between the sleeping bag and the ground. The insertion of a waterproof cover, such as a poncho, between the sleeping bag and air mattress will prevent the mattress and bag from freezing together at very cold temperatures. This is caused by condensation on the mattress due to the difference in temperatures between the lower side touching the ground and the upper side touching the relatively warm sleeping bag. Care must be taken to prevent puncturing the mattress or damaging sleeping bags. In general, the more insulation between the sleeping bag and the ground, the warmer the body.
d. If the tactical situation permits, individuals should avoid wearing too many clothes in the sleeping bag. When too many clothes are worn they tend to bunch up, especially at the shoulders, thereby restricting circulation and inducing cold. Too many clothes also increase the bulk and place tension upon the bag, thus decreasing the size of the insulating airspaces between layers and reducing the efficiency of the insulation. In addition, too many clothes may cause the soldier to perspire and result in excessive moisture accumulating in the bag, a condition which will likewise reduce the bag’s insulating qualities.
e. The sleeping bag is equipped with a full length slide fastener which has a free running, nonlocking slider. In an emergency, the bag can be opened quickly by grasping both sides of the opening near the top of the slide fastener and pulling the fastener apart. As a safety precaution, bags should be tested at frequent intervals to insure that the slide fastener operates freely and will function properly.
f. The sleeping bag should be kept clean and dry. It should be opened wide and ventilated after use to dry out the moisture that accumulates from the body. Whenever possible, it should be sunned or aired in the open. The bag always should be laced in its water-repellent case and carried in the waterproof
bag to prevent snow from getting on it. The warmth of the body could melt the snow during the night and cause extreme discomfort. Individuals should avoid breathing into the bag. If the face becomes too cold it should be covered with an item of clothing. Sleeping bags should be drycleaned at least twice a year. As a safety precaution, bags should be thoroughly aired prior to use to prevent possible asphyxiation from entrapped drycleaning solvent fumes.

2-13. Manpack Equipment
a. Rucksack-Nylon, OG 106 (fig. 2-7).
(1) The nylon rucksack consists of the following:
(a) A lightweight aluminum alloy frame to which all other components are attached.
(b) A lightweight aluminum alloy cargo support shelf provided as optional equipment for attachment to the frame when the frame is used as a packboard.
(c) A pouch fabricated from 4-ounce nylon fabric.
(d) Nylon left and right shoulder straps. The left shoulder strap has a quick-release device designed to facilitate rapid doffing of the rucksack. The right shoulder strap has a rapid adjustment buckle for lengthening the strap which allows the wearer to fire his rifle while in the prone position. The two straps
are interchangeable to accommodate left-handed soldiers.
(e) A nylon webbing waist belt designed to prevent the rucksack from swinging to either side or bouncing during body movements.
(f) A rifle carrier consisting of a rifle butt pocket, constructed of nylon webbing, with a double hook and a rifle strap.
(2) The nylon rucksack is the normal pack equipment used for operations in northern areas and replaces the rucksack, with frame (Standard C). It should be noted that this item may be issued in lieu of the nylon rucksack. It should also be noted that the plywood packboard may be issued in lieu of the nylon rucksack. The soldier using the rucksack can carry extra clothing and rations in the nylon pouch and can also carry one sleeping bag (in waterproof bag). When the nylon pouch is removed and cargo support shelf attached, the rucksack may be used as a packboard for carrying loads weighing approximately
50 pounds (TC 10-8).
b. Suspenders and Belt, Individual Equipment. The suspenders and belt of the M-56 standard load-carrying equipment is worn beneath the nylon rucksack to carry ammunition pouches, first aid or compass case, and the entrenching tool. The suspenders and belt should be adjusted to fit loosely over the cold weather clothing, to allow for proper ventilation. The suspender belt combination is designed so that the belt can be worn unbuckled while on the march, if additional ventilation is required.
Figure 2-7

2-14. Miscellaneous Equipment
a. Sunglasses. Sunglasses always should be worn on bright days when the ground is covered with snow. They are designed to protect the eyes against sunglare and blowing snow. If not used, snow blindness may result. They should be used when the sun is shining through fog or clouds, A bright, cloudy day is deceptive and can be as dangerous to the eyes as a day of brilliant sunshine. The sunglasses should be worn to shade the eyes from the rays of the sun that are reflected by the snow. Snow blindness is similar to sunburn, in that a deep burn may be received before discomfort is felt. To prevent snow blindness, sunglasses must be used from the start of exposure. Waiting for the appearance of discomfort is too late. The risk of snow blindness is increased at high mountain altitudes because the clear air allows more of the burning rays of sunlight to penetrate the atmosphere. When not being used, they should be carried in the protective case to avoid scratching or breaking the lens. If sunglasses are lost or broken, a substitute can be improvised by cutting thin, 3 cm (l”) long slits through a scrap of wood or cardboard approximately 15 cm (6”) long and 3 cm ( 1“ ) wide. The improvised sunglasses
(fig. 2-8 ) can be held on the face with strips of cloth if a cord is not available.
Figure 2-8
b. Canteens.
(1) Canteen, water; cold climatic (fig. 2-9). This canteen is a vacuum-insulated canteen of one quart capacity with an unpainted dull finish steel exterior. The inner and outer stainless steel vessels are welded together at the top of the neck. A nonmetallic mouthpiece at the neck prevents lips from freezing to the metal neck. A plastic cap seals and protects the mouthpiece. A nesting type metal cup with a capacity of one pint is provided for eating and drinking beverages. The canteen with cup is carried in a canvas cover which fastens to field equipment in a manner similar to the conventional canteens. Care must be taken to insure that the mouthpiece or cap are not lost. A sharp blow to the canteen may result in denting or rupture with consequent loss of insulating capabilities.
(2) Conventional metal and plastic canteens. Conventional canteens are carried in a fabric carrier; however, this will not keep the liquid in the canteen from freezing in extreme cold. When possible, the canteen should be carried in one of the pockets or wrapped in any woolen garment and packed in the rucksack. If available, warm or hot water should be placed in the canteen before starting an operation. During extreme cold the canteen should never be filled over two-thirds full. This will allow room for expansion if ice should form, and will prevent the canteen from rupturing. Insure that the gaskets are in the cap at all times. This is an important precaution and will prevent the liquid from leaking out and dampening the clothing in the ruck-sack. Conventional thermos bottles will keep liquids hot, or at least unfrozen for approximately 24 hours, depending on temperatures. If canteens or thermos bottles freeze, they should be thawed out carefully to prevent bursting. The top should be opened and the contents allowed to melt slowly.
Figure 2-9
c. Pocket Equipment. There are several small items that should be carried in the pockets so they will be readily available for use. Having these items when they are needed will contribute to the well-being of individuals and help prevent injuries. A good sharp pocketknife is an essential item. It is useful for
cutting branches, in shelter construction, in repairing ski bindings, and numerous other tasks. Waterproof matches should be carried and kept in the watertight matchbox and used only in an emergency. They should never be used when ordinary matches and lighters will function. Sunburn preventive cream will protect the skin from bright, direct sunshine, from sunrays reflected by the snow, and from strong winds. The chapstick will prevent lips from chapping or breaking due to cold weather or strong winds. The chapstick should be protected from freezing. The emergency thong has numerous uses, such as lashing packs, replacing broken bootlaces, and repairing ski and snowshoe bindings.
d. Emergency Kit. It is recommended that all personnel carry an emergency kit for use in individual survival. With this kit, an individual can survive off the land by trapping and fishing and can procure the minimum amount of food necessary to maintain his strength for a short period of time.
(1) 1 each emergency thong.
(2) 1 each sharp pocketknife.
(3) Single-edge razor blades.
(4) Waterproof matches.
(5) Safety pins.
(6) Fishing line.
(7) Fire starters.
(8) Salt tablets.
(9) High protein candy bars.
(10) Bouillon cubes.

2-15. Steel Helmet
The steel helmet may be worn during warm periods in cold areas in the same manner as in moderate climates. During cold periods it is normally worn over the Cap, Insulating Helmet Liner-Helmet. The helmet may also be worn under the winter hood.

2-16. Protective Mask
a. The Mask, Protective, Field, M17 is the Army standard protective mask. Information on this mask can be found in TM 3-4240-202-15. TM 3-4240-202-15, describes the winterization measures for the M17 Mask. In addition to the wearing of tinted antiglare outserts for the plastic lenses, this kit provides
for winterization inlet and nosecup valves together with an ice prefilter. This allows the standard mask to be worn at temperatures down to –50° F. with the M6A2 hood.
b. The protective mask may be worn in moderately cold weather in the same manner as in moderate climates. When the mask is used in extreme cold, the rubber facepiece should be warm enough to make it pliable when it is adjusted to the wearer’s face. One method of keeping the mask warm is to carry
it inside the outer garments and next to the body. It is also recommended that the mask be kept inside the sleeping bag during the night. On removing the mask, any moisture on the face should be wiped off immediately to prevent frostbite. After drying the face, the facepiece of the mask should be thoroughly dried to prevent freezing of moisture inside the mask. The rubber cover of the outlet valve should also be raised and the valve, surrounding
area, and the inside of the cover wiped dry to prevent the outlet valve from icing.
c. If it becomes necessary to wear the mask for protection against chemical agents during extreme cold weather, troops must be advised that the facepiece of the protective mask will not protect the face from the cold and that, in fact, the opposite is true. The danger of frostbite increases when the mask is worn.
d. The three automatic atropine injections of 2 mg each, carried as accessories during moderate temperature conditions, are carried in a pocket of the protective mask carrier. In cold weather (40° F. and below), the injectors will be removed from the carrier and placed in the inside of the right-hand pocket of the OG shirt, where body temperature will prevent freezing.

2-17. Body Armor
Standard issue body armor may be worn with either of the cold weather uniforms. When worn with the cold-wet uniform it is worn over the OG shirt and under the coat and liner. When worn with the cold-dry uniform it is worn over the OG shirt and under the coat and liner or the parka and liner. Although
the body armor is worn primarily for protection against shell and mortar fragments, it may provide additional environmental protection for the user; however, because of the weight, armor should be worn only for its primary purpose and not for additional warmth.

 

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